The Domain Name System must be understood in order to comprehend the role of the DNS Server.
The Domain Name System can be thought of as the internet’s white pages. The DNS links a website name to its matching IP address in a manner similar to how a phonebook links people to their respective phone numbers.
A database of public IP addresses and the matching domain names are kept on the DNS server. Every internet-connected device has a distinct IP address that serves as a means of identification.
The DNS is a database of IP addresses and domain names that enables browsers to find the correct IP address for a hostname URL entered into it.
Typically, we enter a website’s domain name into the web browser to access it, such as cdnetworks.com, wired.com, or nytimes.com. However, in order to load content for a website, web browsers require knowledge of precise IP addresses.
In order for the resources to be loaded from the website’s server, the DNS must translate domain names to IP addresses.
What is a DNS server used for?
- A DNS server’s job is to convert user input into something that computers can understand and use to find a website. Or, to put it another way, it serves the purpose of changing a domain name, like www.example.com, into an IP address, like 184.108.40.206.
- People no longer have to memorize lengthy IP addresses like 220.127.116.11, which is Google’s IP address, thanks to DNS servers. They simply need to commit www.google.com to memory.
- Multiple hardware components are needed for the DNS resolution process, which entails translation. The primary DNS server is the most significant.
How DNS Operates
The process of converting a hostname to an IP address, also known as DNS resolution, is carried out by four key servers, claims networking software provider Cloudflare. This procedure is compared by Cloudflare to a librarian being asked to locate a book and gradually honing their search:
The DNS recursive server
Typically, here is where your request stops. If it can’t locate the correct IP for your website, it receives the original query, checks the most recently cached addresses, and makes a request to servers further down the chain.
The principal name server
directs your request to more precise locations, which aids in converting site names into IP addresses. This is comparable to a certain area of the library.
The nameserver for the top-level domain (TLD)
hosts particular top-level domains, or the last part of a website’s hostname like.com,.org, or.edu, to further narrow the search.
For instance, the.com TLD nameserver would be the result of a search for pcmag.com.
To increase the response time for requests, banks of TLD nameservers are spread out across the globe.
The reliable nameserver is
This server hosts certain IPs for domain names and is the final stop your request makes. The corresponding DNS record will be returned after it has received the request so that the web page may load.
If the record is missing from the server, an error message is returned. The information the librarian originally set out to find is contained in this book.
The following steps make up the fundamental process of a DNS resolution:
- A web address or domain name is typed into a browser by the user.
- To determine which IP or network address the domain refers to, the browser sends a message to the network known as a recursive DNS query.
- The request is sent to a recursive resolver, also known as a recursive DNS server, which is typically run by the internet service provider (ISP).
- The user will receive the address back if the recursive resolver has it, and the website will load.
- Together, the three different server types continue to reroute traffic until they locate a DNS entry that has the requested IP address.
- The user’s desired website loads after this information is sent to the recursive DNS server. DNS root name servers and TLD servers mostly redirect requests rather than solving problems directly.
- The A record for the domain name, which contains the IP address, is kept in the recursive server’s cache.
- The following time it gets a request for that domain name, it can answer the user directly rather than asking other servers for information.
- If the query is sent to the authoritative server and it is unable to locate the data, it returns an error.